When I think of "techbase" in Doom, a particular kind of gameplay comes to mind more than a visual theme - gameplay I wouldn't be able to qualify personally because I consider it bad, but definitely common gameplay to most of these maps. Think many of the maps in CChests, 1024 projects, Dtwid, BtSX, NDCP, RTC-3057, etc.. In which category of yours would these maps fit?
I hope no useless so-and-so says: good map, bad map...
Going through your list to see if I get the same impression as you intended:
- invasion: skulltag's mode, or any map where you defend a stronghold and/or try to stay alive in a limited area against waves of monsters
- slaughter: high monster density, centered on fighting (or how to avoid doing so) over anything else
- grind: large and long slaughter map, endurance trial of sorts, as in Okuplok's map, Holy Hell map05, TOD's Eternal Doom remix. Perhaps some Sunder maps, the maps Belial mentioned and certain maps by Eternal could qualify as well.
- puzzle: level requiring manipulating the environment to progress, with limited monster use.
- switch-hunt: a certain amount of switches in the map, being placed far away from the doors they open and/or in unintuitive places.
- adventure: going through varied locations with a distinct sense of progression or of working towards something. UAC Ultra (specifically map10), KDiZD, many maps by Eternal, Lunatic, some Vanguard maps.
- run n gun: maps with minimal opposition in which you can blaze through at high speed (perhaps this is where the aforementioned techbases fit? Although I'd argue unintuitive flow, if not forced breaks in pace, ruin the "run" part in most of these).
- concept/gimmick: emphasizing or being built around a few specific features.
- frugal/resource management: low HP/ammo.
- speedrunner: purposefully designed around engine tricks either being required or allowing for much quicker exits.